Create Objects using a Constructor

Inheritance in JavaScript allows objects to inherit(actually link) to properties and methods of other objects, creating a hierarchical relationship between them.

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Constructors - Functions That Make Objects

Javascript doesn't have any special function that makes them a constructor, the new keyword does all the work of making it behave like one. Conventionally, such function names are capitalised.

Creating Similar Objects

Friend and buddy objects have many similarities in terms of behavior e.g. walk, talk, speak etc. But the data i.e. name, age etc is unique to them. With that, we can create a constructor that creates this unique person with unique data and stores the common behavior in its prototype object.

// constructor
function Person(name) {
  // unique data = name
// common behavior
Person.prototype.greet = function () {
  return 'Hello! I am ' +
// create an object with unique data
var friend = new Person('meher')
var buddy = new Person('you')
friend.greet() // > 'Hello! I am meher'

Inheritance Between Constructors

There is no single step in JS that lets you create subclasses because JS was created differently. And subclassing is something that doesn't exist in prototype-based languages but it can simulate one. So we need to do this manually and we need to get the following steps right to achieve the subclassing that exists in class-based languages.

  • Inherit instance properties from the superclass
  • Inherit prototype properties from the super
  • instanceof should work correctly for the instance objects

Setting up the Subclass

The first step is to make the subclass inherit instance properties from the superclass. And we do that by invoking the superclass using the call method which executes the super function using the this of the subclass. If we used the new keyword here instead then we would have just created an instance of the superclass which we don't want.

function AwesomePerson(name, hobby) {, name)
  this.hobby = hobby

Linking the Subclass and Superclass Prototype

We have already seen how we can link the objects to share common behavior. It's similar to that but we need to note that Object.create takes objects as inputs and therefore you would notice that we pass super.prototype instead of just super as `super is a function.

AwesomePerson.prototype = Object.create(Person.prototype)

Out of curiosity, we can argue that why can't we do something like the following but the problem is that this returns all the instance properties of the Person too, and for instance, properties we have already configured previously when we did ', name)'. And when it comes to setting the prototype of AwesomePerson, we just need the prototype object of the Person.

AwesomePerson.prototype = new Person() // incorrect

Now, because we linked the prototype to Person, the constructor property on the prototype on AwesomePerson points to Person. So we fix that by the following statement.

AwesomePerson.prototype.constructor = AwesomePerson

Now, we can go about adding methods to the prototype of our AwesomePerson function. Doing it before the Object.create step would get them overwritten. = function () {
  return 'I love ' + this.hobby