In the early days of the web, Mosaic was a popular browser that led to the founding of Netscape. Netscape Navigator, a more advanced browser, was released in 1994 and gained widespread usage. To overcome the limitation of static web pages, Netscape sought to add a scripting language. They considered Java and Scheme but ultimately decided on a new language with Java-like syntax. It was created by Brendon Eich in just 10 days.
In the early 2000s, Internet Explorer dominated the browser market, causing stagnation in client-side scripting. However, in 2004, Mozilla's release of Firefox challenged Internet Explorer's dominance and gained significant market share. Mozilla joined ECMA International in 2005 and collaborated with Macromedia to standardize ActionScript 3 as the new ECMAScript 4.
The ECMAScript draft specification is now openly maintained on GitHub, with regular annual snapshots and a comprehensive proposal process for potential language revisions.